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Polyregular functions on unordered trees of bounded height

Mikołaj Bojańczyk
University of Warsaw
Oct. 11, 2023, 2:15 p.m.
room 5050
Seminar Automata Theory

Joint work with Bartek Klin (University of Oxford) We consider first-order interpretations that input and output trees of bounded height. The corresponding functions have polynomial output size, since a first-order interpretation can use a $k$-tuple of input nodes to represent a single output node. We prove that the equivalence problem for such functions is decidable, i.e. given two such interpretations, one can decide whether for every input tree, the two output trees are isomorphic. This result is incomparable to the open problem about deciding equivalence for polyregular string-to-string functions. We also give a calculus, based on prime functions and combinators, which derives all first-order interpretations for unordered trees of bounded height. The calculus is based on a type system, where the type constructors are products, co-products and multisets. Thanks to the results about tree-to-tree interpretations, the equivalence problem is decidable for this calculus. As an application of our results, we show that the equivalence problem is decidable for first-order interpretations between classes of graphs that have bounded tree depth. In all cases studied in this paper, first-order logic and mso have the same expressive power, and hence all results apply also to mso interpretations.