Taylor’s Theorem is a very powerful generalization of Lagrange Theorem which we have studied in the previous term. It gives us a possibility to approximate a function with polynomials.
Let and has all derivatives, up to -th. Let, then:
where is some number between and .
Sum will be called -th order Taylor polynomial of in point , and is the -th remainder term.
Taylor’s Theorem enables calculating some approximate values of a function in a given point. E.g., . Its second order Taylor polynomial in is , which for is and it is up to the remainder term, so the possible error is not greater than .
Therefore, if on a given interval , then we can write as a sum of a series. E.g. for is convergent on the whole real line, so the Taylor series of in point (it is easy because ) is:
Such a series but for is called a Maclaurin series.